UNFCCC - United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (Beginners)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty ratified at the “Rio Earth Summit” in 1992. The Convention was then implemented by countries all around the world in 1994 to address the issue of climate change. Having entered into force on 21 March 1994, today it has near-universal membership.


The 197 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention. The UNFCCC states that its objectives are to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” and prevent human damage and interference with the climate system.


The UNFCCC meets yearly to take stock of progress in implementing its obligations under the treaty and to consider further actions to address the climate change threat. The Kyoto Protocol and more recent Paris Agreement are other landmark treaties that have emerged from these annual meetings. The Convention acknowledges the vulnerability of all countries to the effects of climate change and calls for special efforts to ease the consequences, especially in developing countries that lack the resources to do so on their own.


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